A staunch evolutionary biologist, Haeckel put Darwin on the world map. There were various styles of embryological drawings at that time, ranging from more schematic representations to "naturalistic" illustrations of specific specimens. Updates? Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? [75] Haeckel was also an extreme German nationalist who believed strongly in the superiority of German culture. (See biogenetic law.). His chief interests lay in evolution and life development processes in general, including development of nonrandom form, which culminated in the beautifully illustrated Kunstformen der Natur (Art forms of nature). [23], However, Haeckel's books were banned by the Nazi Party, which refused Monism and Haeckel's freedom of thought. Haeckel's work focused often on the genesis and evolution of life and on the embryology of humans. Haeckel dedicated some species of jellyfish of particular beauty (such as Desmonema annasethe) to his unforgettable wife. He then studied medicine in Berlin and Würzburg, particularly with Albert von Kölliker, Franz Leydig, Rudolf Virchow (with whom he later worked briefly as assistant), and with the anatomist-physiologist Johannes Peter Müller (1801–1858). [citation needed], Haeckel argued that human evolution consisted of precisely 22 phases, the 21st – the "missing link" – being a halfway step between apes and humans. In 1857 … In contrast to most of Darwin's supporters, Haeckel put forward a doctrine of evolutionary polygenism based on the ideas of the linguist August Schleicher, in which several different language groups had arisen separately from speechless prehuman Urmenschen (German: proto-humans), which themselves had evolved from simian ancestors. This species alone (with the exception of the Mongolian) has had an actual history; it alone has attained to that degree of civilisation which seems to raise men above the rest of nature. Ernst Haeckel was a German zoologist, evolutionist, philosopher, professor, naturalist, physician, biologist, and artist. It mentioned von Baer's 1828 anecdote (misattributing it to Louis Agassiz) that at an early stage embryos were so similar that it could be impossible to tell whether an unlabelled specimen was of a mammal, a bird, or of a reptile, and Darwin's own research using embryonic stages of barnacles to show that they are crustaceans, while cautioning against the idea that one organism or embryonic stage is "higher" or "lower", or more or less evolved. Das System der Medusen. His gastraea theory, tracing all multicellular animals to a hypothetical two-layered ancestor, stimulated both discussion and investigation. The two massive volumes sold poorly, and were heavy going: with his limited understanding of German, Darwin found them impossible to read. Ernst Haeckel's contribution to Evo-Devo and scientific debate: a re-evaluation of Haeckel's controversial illustrations in US textbooks in response to creationist accusations. On 21 October he visited Charles Darwin at Down House in Kent. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). He was so precise [citation needed], He was one of the first to consider psychology as a branch of physiology. "Haeckel's Monism and the Birth of Fascist Ideology". Haeckel retired from teaching in 1909, and in 1910 he withdrew from the Evangelical Church of Prussia. [79][80] They also point to incompatibilities between evolutionary biology and Nazi ideology. In 1906 Haeckel founded a group called the Monist League (Deutscher Monistenbund) to promote his religious and political beliefs. and says the Nazis rejected Haeckel, since he opposed antisemitism, while supporting ideas they disliked (for instance atheism, feminism, internationalism, pacifism etc.). Interestingly, though it was only on a theoretical basis, he suggested as early as 1866 that the cell nucleus was concerned with inheritance. He is regarded as a pioneer of eugenics and Nazi eugenics in Germany. He believed that Lemuria was the home of the first humans and that Asia was the home of many of the earliest primates; he thus supported that Asia was the cradle of hominid evolution. 1: 1–363. He had long been thinking of “vital molecular movement” when, in 1876, he attempted to place heredity on a molecular basis in a work entitled Die Perigenesis der Plastidule (“The Generation of Waves in the Small Vital Particles”). [83] Other Nazis kept their distance from Haeckel. [81], Nazis themselves divided on the question of whether Haeckel should be counted as a pioneer of their ideology. Ernst Haeckel, scientist, philosopher and artist, made a significant contribution to early evolutionary theory, and was profoundly influential on the Fine and Decorative Arts of his time. [26] It proposed a link between ontogeny (development of form) and phylogeny (evolutionary descent), summed up by Haeckel in the phrase "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny". [12] In 1869 he traveled as a researcher to Norway, in 1871 to Croatia (where he lived on the island of Hvar in a monastery),[17] and in 1873 to Egypt, Turkey, and Greece. [82] This opinion was also shared by the scholarly journal, Der Biologie, which celebrated Haeckel's 100th birthday, in 1934, with several essays acclaiming him as a pioneering thinker of Nazism. Robert J. Richards, "Myth 19: That Darwin and Haeckel Were Complicit in Nazi Biology", in. It is generally called the Caucasian race, but as, among all the varieties of the species, the Caucasian branch is the least important, we prefer the much more suitable appellation proposed by Friedrich Müller, namely, that of Mediterranese. The Caucasian, or Mediterranean man (Homo Mediterraneus), has from time immemorial been placed at the head of all the races of men, as the most highly developed and perfect. He set forth his ideas in popular writings, all of which were widely read though they were deplored by many of Haeckel’s scientific colleagues. He described these theoretical remains in great detail and even named the as-yet unfound species, Pithecanthropus alalus, and instructed his students such as Richard and Oskar Hertwig to go and find it. Enthusiastically attempting to explain both inorganic and organic nature under the same physical laws, Haeckel portrayed the lowest creatures as mere protoplasm without nuclei; he speculated that they had arisen spontaneously through combinations of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur. According to our current on-line database, Ernst Haeckel has 1 student and 5 descendants. These remains are among the oldest hominid remains ever found. [40], Haeckel claimed the origin of humanity was to be found in Asia: he believed that Hindustan (Indian subcontinent) was the actual location where the first humans had evolved. [citation needed], Haeckel's literary output was extensive, including many books, scientific papers, and illustrations.[61]. 1, pp. [28][29], Haeckel was a flamboyant figure, who sometimes took great, non-scientific leaps from available evidence. [66][67][68], The evidence is in some respects ambiguous. [24], Haeckel was a zoologist, an accomplished artist and illustrator, and later a professor of comparative anatomy. He termed these early organisms Mon… (Ironically, a new human species, Homo floresiensis, a dwarf human type, has recently been discovered in the island of Flores). At Messina he studied the one-celled protozoan group Radiolaria, members of which are strikingly crystalline in form; not surprisingly, Haeckel later maintained that the simplest organic life had originated spontaneously from inorganic matter by a sort of crystallization. For a time he practiced medicine; his father then agreed to his traveling to Italy, where he painted and even considered art as a career. The current consensus of anthropologists is that the direct ancestors of modern humans were African populations of Homo erectus (possibly Homo ergaster), rather than the Asian populations exemplified by Java Man and Peking Man. Haeckel took particular care over the illustrations, changing to the leading zoological publisher Wilhelm Engelmann of Leipzig and obtaining from them use of illustrations from their other textbooks as well as preparing his own drawings including a dramatic double page illustration showing "early", "somewhat later" and "still later" stages of 8 different vertebrates. [14] [52][53] There were multiple versions of the embryo drawings, and Haeckel rejected the claims of fraud. [60], Darwin's 1859 book On the Origin of Species had immense popular influence, but although its sales exceeded its publisher's hopes it was a technical book rather than a work of popular science: long, difficult and with few illustrations. Initially Haeckel trained as a physician, and then studied comparative anatomy with … He even formally named this missing link Pithecanthropus alalus, translated as "ape man without speech". Though he made no suggestion that embryo illustrations should be directly based on specimens, to him the subject demanded the utmost "scrupulosity and conscientiousness" and an artist must "not arbitrarily model or generalise his originals for speculative purposes" which he considered proved by comparison with works by other authors. [39], However, Robert J. Richards notes: "Haeckel, on his travels to Ceylon and Indonesia, often formed closer and more intimate relations with natives, even members of the untouchable classes, than with the European colonials." Haeckel grew up in Merseburg, where his father was a government official. [11] [54] Robert J. Richards, in a paper published in 2008, defends the case for Haeckel, shedding doubt against the fraud accusations based on the material used for comparison with what Haeckel could access at the time. [16] In 1867 he married Agnes Huschke. His concept of recapitulation has been refuted in the form he gave it (now called "strong recapitulation"), in favour of the ideas first advanced by Karl Ernst von Baer. [70] He was also a social Darwinist who believed that "survival of the fittest" was a natural law, and that struggle led to improvement of the race. Haeckel accepted the invitation. 1998. It was later said that "there is evidence of sleight of hand" on both sides of the feud between Haeckel and Wilhelm His. [74] Haeckel also believed that Germany should be governed by an authoritarian political system, and that inequalities both within and between societies were an inevitable product of evolutionary law. From this, Haeckel drew the implication that languages with the most potential yield the human races with the most potential, led by the Semitic and Indo-Germanic groups, with Berber, Jewish, Greco-Roman and Germanic varieties to the fore. The fifth edition of Haeckel's book appeared in 1874, with its frontispiece a heroic portrait of Haeckel himself, replacing the previous controversial image of the heads of apes and humans. At the end of 1868 his review in the Archiv für Anthropologie wondered about the claim that the work was "popular and scholarly", doubting whether the second was true, and expressed horror about such public discussion of man's place in nature with illustrations such as the evolutionary trees being shown to non-experts. ), German zoologist and evolutionist who was a strong proponent of Darwinism and who proposed new notions of the evolutionary descent of human beings. As a book for the general public, it followed the common practice of not citing sources. For example, at the time when Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859), Haeckel postulated that evidence of human evolution would be found in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). The science was named by German biologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), who introduced the term in several works in the 1860s and 1870s, first in German and then in English, inspiring others to develop the science. [12] Haeckel died on 9 August 1919. Ernst Haeckel, in full Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, (born Feb. 16, 1834, Potsdam, Prussia [Germany]—died Aug. 9, 1919, Jena, Ger. Developmental series were used to show stages within a species, but inconsistent views and stages made it even more difficult to compare different species. He saw the social sciences as instances of "applied biology", and that phrase was picked up and used for Nazi propaganda. Some historians have seen Haeckel's social Darwinism as a forerunner to Nazi ideology. 7, showing His's drawing of the forelimb of a deer embryo developing a clef, compared with a similar drawing (Sakurai, 1906) showing the forelimb initially developing as a digital plate with rays. [78] The principal arguments of historians who deny a meaningful connection between Haeckel and Nazism are that Haeckel's ideas were very common at the time, that Nazis were much more strongly influenced by other thinkers, and that Haeckel is properly classified as a 19th century German liberal, rather than a forerunner to Nazism. Haeckel saw evolution as the basis for a unified explanation of all nature and the rationale of a philosophical approach that denied final causes and the teleology of the church. Some scientists of the day suggested[30] Dubois' Java Man as a potential intermediate form between modern humans and the common ancestor we share with the other great apes. It was a bestselling, provocatively illustrated book in German, titled Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte, published in Berlin in 1868, and translated into English as The History of Creation in 1876. More importantly, though, In the United States, Mount Haeckel, a 13,418 ft (4,090 m) summit in the Eastern Sierra Nevada, overlooking the Evolution Basin, is named in his honour, as is another Mount Haeckel, a 2,941 m (9,649 ft) summit in New Zealand; and the asteroid 12323 Haeckel. From Ernst Haeckel's. Haeckel was fond of drawing linear and symmetrical trees of evolution, tracing humanity's ancestry back to life's earliest forms, especially the protozoa he had published on at the beginning of his career. Duplication using galvanoplastic stereotypes (clichés) was a common technique in textbooks, but not on the same page to represent different eggs or embryos. While he was a student, his professor Johannes Müller, took him on a summer field trip to observe small sea creatures off the coast of Heligoland in the North Sea, sparking his life-long fascination for natural forms and biology. The evolutionary study of embryos reached a peak in the late 1800s thanks primarily to the efforts of one extraordinarily gifted, though not entirely honest, scientist named Ernst Haeckel (left). In the Spring of that year he drew figures for the book, synthesising his views of specimens in Jena and published pictures to represent types. As Blackwell (Am Biol Teach 69:135–136, 2007) pointed out, multiple authors have attempted to discredit Haeckel, stating that modern embryological studies have shown that Haeckel’s drawings are stylized or embellished. [77] He was also a pacifist until the First World War, when he wrote propaganda in favor of the war. It was agreed by all European evolutionists that all vertebrates looked very similar at an early stage, in what was thought of as a common ideal type, but there was a continuing debate from the 1820s between the Romantic recapitulation theory that human embryos developed through stages of the forms of all the major groups of adult animals, literally manifesting a sequence of organisms on a linear chain of being, and Karl Ernst von Baer's opposing view, stated in von Baer's laws of embryology, that the early general forms diverged into four major groups of specialised forms without ever resembling the adult of another species, showing affinity to an archetype but no relation to other types or any transmutation of species. He held that evolutionary biology had definitively proven that races were unequal in intelligence and ability, and that their lives were also of unequal value. Animals ( e.g eugenics and Nazi eugenics in Germany from 1834 to 1919 for the general public, it the... 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